Articles & Essays

Journal Articles

Modeling Medieval World Literature.” Middle Eastern Literatures, vol. 20, no. 1, 2017, pp. 2-17.

AHR Conversation: Walls, Borders, and Boundaries in World History.” American Historical Review, vol. 122, no. 5, 2017, pp. 1500-53. [With Tamar Herzog, Daniel Jütte, Carl Nightingale, William Rankin, Keren Weitzberg.]

Embodying the Historical Moment: Tombs and Idols in the Histoire ancienne jusqu’à César.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, vol. 44, no. 3, 2014, pp. 617-43.

Love for Lucretius: The Perils of Affective Historiography” [Review of The Swerve by Steven Greenblatt], Exemplaria, vol. 25, no. 4, 2013, pp. 349-52.

The Object of Devotion: Fundamentalist Perspectives on the Medieval Past.” Religion and Literature, vol. 42, no. 1, 2010, pp. 299-315.

Becoming Human.” postmedieval: A Journal of Medieval Culture Studies, vol. 1, no. 1-2, 2010, pp. 272-89.

Making Substantial Connections: A Critical Appreciation of Sheila Delany.” Florilegium, vol. 23, 2006, pp. 1-18.

“Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto: The Faculty Perspective.” Florilegium, vol. 20, 2003, pp. 87-90.

Imagining Islam: The Role of Images in Medieval Depictions of Muslims.” Scripta Mediterranea, vols. 19-20, 1998-99, pp. 9-27.

The Rhetoric of Antichrist in Western Lives of Muhammad.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, vol. 8, no. 3, 1997, pp. 297-307.

“Medieval Optics in Guillaume de Lorris’ Roman de la Rose.” Medievalia et Humanistica, vol, 21, 1994, pp. 1-15.

Essays in Collections

Where is Medieval Ethiopia? Mapping Ethiopic Studies within Medieval Studies.” Toward a Global Middle Ages: Encountering the World through Illuminated Manuscripts, edited by Bryan Keene, Getty Publications, 2019, pp. 80-91.

Seeing Jerusalem: Schematic Views of the Holy City, 1100-1300.” Aspects of Knowledge: Preserving and Reinventing Traditions of Learning in the Middle Ages, edited by Marilina Cesario and Hugh Magennis, Manchester University Press, 2018, pp. 116-41. [With Asa Mittman]

Sight Lines: The Mirror of the Mind in Medieval Poetics.” Specular Reflections: The Mirror in Medieval and Early Modern Culture, edited by Nancy Frelick, Brepols Publishing, 2016, pp. 149-69.

Ekphrasis and Stasis in the Allegories of Christine de Pizan.” The Art of Vision: Ekphrasis in Medieval Literature and Culture, edited by Andrew James Johnson, Ethan Knapp, and Magritta Rouse, Ohio State University Pres, 2015, pp. 184-205.

“The Form of Heaven: Dante’s Islamic Paradise.” Dante and the Christian Imagination, edited by Domenico Pietropaolo, Legas Publishing, 2015, pp. 105-18.

Ovid and Ovidianism.” The Oxford History of Classical Reception in English Literature, Vol. 1: The Middle Ages, edited by Rita Copeland, Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 187-208.

The Non-Christians of Piers Plowman.” The Cambridge Companion to Piers Plowman. Rev. ed., edited by Andrew Cole and Andrew Galloway, Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 160-76.

The Persistence of Philology: Language and Connectivity in the Mediterranean.” A Sea of Languages: Rethinking the Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History, edited by Suzanne Conklin Akbari and Karla Mallette, University of Toronto Press, 2013, pp. 3-22.

Limits and Teleology: The Many Ends of the Body.” The Ends of the Body: Identity and Community in Medieval Culture, edited by Suzanne Akbari and Jill Ross, University of Toronto Press, 2012, pp. 3-21. [With Jill Ross]

Death as Metamorphosis in the Devotional and Political Allegory of Christine de Pizan.” The Ends of the Body: Identity and Community in Medieval Culture, edited by Suzanne Akbari and Jill Ross, University of Toronto Press, 2012, pp. 283-313.

“The Other’s Images: Christian Iconoclasm and the Charge of Muslim Idolatry in Medieval Europe.” Images of Otherness in Medieval and Early Modern Times: Exclusion, Inclusion, and Assimilation, edited by Anja Eisenbeiss and Lieselotte E. Saurma-Jeltsch, Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2012, pp. 121-32.

Erasing the Body: History and Memory in Medieval Siege Poetry.” Remembering the Crusades: Myth, Image, and Identity, edited by Nicholas Paul and Suzanne Yeager, Johns HopkinsUniversity Press, 2012, pp. 146-73.

Shaping Knowledge: The Movement from Verse to Prose in the Allegories of Christine de Pizan.” Poetry, Knowledge and Community in Late Medieval France, edited by Rebecca Dixon and Finn E. Sinclair, Boydell and Brewer, 2008, pp. 136-48.

Between Diaspora and Conquest: Norman Assimilation in Petrus Alfonsi’s Disciplina Clericalis and Marie de France’s Fables.” Cultural Diversity in the British Middle Ages: Archipelago, Island, England, edited by Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, The New Middle Ages, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp. 17-37.

Currents and Currency in Marco Polo’s Divisement dou monde and The Book of John Mandeville.” Marco Polo and the Encounter of East and West, edited by Suzanne Akbari and Amilcare Iannucci, University of Toronto Press, 2008, pp. 110-30.

Introduction: East, West, and In-between.” Marco Polo and the Encounter of East and West, edited by Suzanne Akbari and Amilcare Iannucci, University of Toronto Press, 2008, pp. 3-20.

Metaphor and Metamorphosis in the Ovide moralisé and Christine de Pizan’s Mutacion de Fortune.” Metamorphosis: The Changing Face of Ovid in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, edited by Alison Keith and Stephen Rupp, Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2007, pp. 77-90.

“Woman as Mediator in Medieval Depictions of Muslims: The Case of Floripas.” Medieval Constructions in Gender and Identity: Essays in Honor of Joan M. Ferrante, edited by Teodolinda Barolini, 2005, pp. 151-67.

The Hunger for National Identity in Richard Coer de Lion.” Reading Medieval Culture: Essays in Honor of Robert W. Hanning, edited by Robert M. Stein and Sandra Pierson Prior, University of Notre Dame Press, 2005, pp. 198-227.

“Alexander in the Orient: Bodies and Boundaries in the Roman de toute chevalerie.” Postcolonial Approaches to the European Middle Ages: Translating Cultures, edited by Ananya Jahanara Kabir and Deanne Williams, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 105-26.

The Diversity of Mankind in The Book of John Mandeville.” Eastward Bound: Travel and Travellers, 1050-1500, edited by Rosamund Allen, Manchester University Press, 2004, pp.156-76.

Placing the Jews in Late Medieval English Literature.” Orientalism and the Jews, edited by Ivan Davidson Kalmar and Derek J. Penslar, University Press of New England, 2004, pp. 32-50.

Incorporation in the Siege of Melayne.” Pulp Fictions of Medieval England: Essays in Popular Romance, edited by. Nicola F. McDonald, Manchester University Press, 2004, pp. 22-44.

Orientation and Nation in the Canterbury Tales.” Chaucer’s Cultural Geography, edited by Kathryn L. Lynch. Basic Readings in Chaucer and his Time, Routledge, 2002, pp. 102-34.

“From Due East to True North: Orientalism and Orientation.” The Postcolonial Middle Ages, edited by Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, St. Martin's , 2000, pp. 19-34.

Nature’s Forge Recast in the Roman de Silence.” Literary Aspects of Courtly Culture: Selected Papers from the Seventh Triennial Congress of the International Courtly Literature Society, edited by Donald Maddox and Sara Sturm-Maddox, Boydell and Brewer, 1994, pp. 39-46.

Reference Works

Islam and Islamic Culture.” The Dante Encyclopedia, edited by Richard Lansing, Garland, 2000, pp. 520-23.

Saracens.” The Dante Encyclopedia, edited by Richard Lansing, Garland, 2000, pp. 763.


Review of The Mysteries of Marco Polo Maps, by Benjamin B. Olshin, Journal of Historical Geography, vol. 53, 2016, pp. 106-08.

Review of Trading Tongues: Merchants, Multilingualism, and Medieval Literature, by Jonathan Hsy, The Medieval Review, 18 January 2015.

Review of Ovid in the Middle Ages, edited by James G. Clark, Frank T. Coulson, and Kathryn L. McKinley, Speculum, vol. 89, no. 3, 2014, pp. 758-60.

Review of Reading Hayy Ibn-Yaqzan: A Cross-Cultural History of Autodidacticism, by Avner Ben-Zaken, American Historical Review, vol. 117, no. 1, 2012, pp. 159-60.

Review of Telling Images: Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative II, by V. A. Kolve, Journal of British Studies, vol. 51, no.1, 2012, pp. 195-97.

Review of Atheism in the Medieval Islamic and European World: The Influence of Persian and Arabic Ideas of Doubt and Skepticism on Medieval European Literary Thought, by Fatemeh Chehregosha Azinfar, International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 43, no. 4, 2011, pp. 759-60.

Review of Medievalisms in the Postcolonial World: The Idea of “the Middle Ages” Outside Europe, edited by Kathleen Davis and Nadia Altschul, Studies in the Age of Chaucer, vol. 33, 2011, pp. 328-31.

Review of The Medieval Poetics of the Reliquary: Enshrinement, Inscription, Performance, by Seeta Chaganti, Speculum, vol. 85, no. 2, 2010, pp. 376-77.

Review of No Place of Rest: Jewish Literature, Expulsion, and the Memory of Medieval France, by Susan L. Einbinder, Encomia, vol. 31, 2009, pp. 32-34.

Review of The Place of Thought: The Complexity of One in Late Medieval French Didactic Poetry, by Sarah Kay, Speculum, vol. 83, no. 3, 2008, pp. 718-21.

Review of Representing Righteous Heathens in Late Medieval England, by Frank Grady, Studies in the Age of Chaucer, vol. 30, no.1, 2008, pp. 364-68.

Review of Troubled Vision: Gender, Sexuality, and Sight in Medieval Text and Image, edited by Emma Campbell and Robert Mills, The Medieval Review, 29 April 2008. 

Review of Seeing and Being Seen in the Later Medieval World: Optics, Theology, and Religious Life, by Dallas G. Denery II, Isis, vol. 98, no. 2, 2007, pp. 377-78.

Review of “Mandeville’s Travels”: A “Rihla” in Disguise, by Ana Pinto, Speculum, vol. 82, no. 1, 2007, pp. 474-76.

Review of Chaucer’s Jobs, by David R. Carlson, The Medieval Review, 25 February 2006.

Review of The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 2, The Middle Ages, edited by Alastair Minnis and Ian Johnson, Notes and Queries, vol. 53, no. 4, 2006, pp. 556-58.

Review of Philosophical Chaucer: Love, Sex, and Agency in the Canterbury Tales, by Mark Miller, Notes and Queries, vol. 53, no. 4, 2006, pp. 551-53. 

Review of Creating East and West: Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks, by Nancy Bisaha, Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, 2005, pp. 191-94.

Review of Christine de Pizan: A Casebook, edited by Barbara K. Altmann and Deborah L. McGrady, Notes and Queries, vol. 52, no. 3, 2005, pp. 387-90.

Review of The Making of Medieval Forgeries: False Documents in Fifteenth-Century England, by Alfred Hiatt, Notes and Queries, vol. 52, no. 3, 2005, pp. 391-93.

Review of Anglo-Saxon Perceptions of the Islamic World, by Katherine Scarfe Beckett, Notes and Queries, vol. 52, no. 2, 2005, pp. 84-85.

Review of Mandeville's Medieval Audiences, by Rosemary Tzanaki, Notes and Queries, vol. 52, no. 2, 2005, pp. 85-86.

Review of Fortune’s Faces: The Roman de la Rose and the Poetics of Contingency, by Daniel Heller-Roazen,The Medieval Review, 21 January 2005.

Review of The Oxford Companion to Chaucer, edited by Douglas Gray, Notes and Queries, vol. 52, no. 1, 2005, pp. 114-15.

Review of The Defective Version of Mandeville's Travels, edited by M.C. Seymour, Notes and Queries, vol. 51, vol. 1, 2004, 66-67.

Review of Chaucer and the Jews, Sheila Delany, University of Toronto Quarterly, vol. 73, no. 1, 2003-04, pp. 176-77.

Review of Dante and the Orient, by Brenda Schildgen, The Dalhousie Review, vol. 83, no. 3, 2003, pp. 451-53.

Review of Saracens: Islam in the European Imagination, by John Tolan, The Medieval Review, 1 January 2003.

Review of Giovanni Boccaccio: Famous Women, edited by translated by Virginia Brown, University of Toronto Quarterly, vol. 72, no. 1, 2002-03, pp. 377-78. 

Review of Turks, Moors, and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery, by Nabil Matar, Medieval Encounters, vol. 8, no. 1, 2002, pp. 99-103.

Review of From Arabye to Engelond: Medieval Studies in Honour of Mahmoud Manzalaoui, edited by A. E. Christa Canitz and Gernot R. Wieland, University of Toronto Quarterly, vol. 71, no. 1, 2001-02, pp. 198-200

Review of Esope au féminin: Marie de France et la politique de l’interculturalité, by Saher Amer, Medieval Encounters, vol. 6, vols. 1-3, 2000, pp. 114-17.

Review of Writing East: The “Travels” of Sir John Mandeville, by Iain Macleod Higgins, University of Toronto Quarterly, vol. 68, no. 1, 1998-99, pp. 431-32.

Review of Silence: A Thirteenth-Century French Romance, edited and translated by Sarah Roche-Mahdi, Envoi, vol. 4, no. 1, 1993, pp. 183-85.

Review of Wace’s La Vie de sainte Marguerite, edited by Hans-Erich Keller, Envoi, vol. 3, no. 2, 1992, pp. 558-61.

Review of Medieval Allegories of Jesus' Parables, by Stephen J. Wailes, Envoi, vol. 2, no. 2, 1990, pp. 493-95.

Review of Three Medieval Views of Women, by Gloria K. Fiero, et al., Envoi, vol 2., no. 2, 1990, 470-73